プロの方々がコード進行について考える方法(そしておそらくあなたはしていない方法)(By Jens Larsen)

Jens Larsen氏が語る「プロの方々がコード進行について考える方法」を翻訳しました。




if you're trying to learn jazz and especially the first time you're looking at how to learn a jazz standard, then you probably know how it is to look at a piece of sheet music and then feel that the chords are flying by in an impossible Tempo.


I started thinking about this because a few weeks ago, I was playing a gig with a saxophone player that I know for a long time. We were talking about what songs to play. It was just a gig in a cafe, and we were just playing standards. One of the songs he suggested was Ellington's "Sophisticated Lady." "Sophisticated Lady" is a beautiful song that I first learned very early on when I was still living in Copenhagen, and actually, I never played it since.

私は最近、長い間知っているサックスプレーヤーとのギグでこのことを考え始めました。私たちは演奏する曲について話していました。それはカフェでのギグで、私たちはスタンダードナンバーを演奏していました。彼が提案した曲の一つはエリントンの「Sophisticated Lady」でした。「Sophisticated Lady」は美しい曲で、私はコペンハーゲンに住んでいた頃に初めて学んだ曲であり、実際にはそれ以来演奏したことがありませんでした。

When I was talking to the saxophone player, then we could both remember looking at that song for the first time and thinking, "What the hell is going on, and why are there so many chords in this?" And that is, of course, how many Jazz standards will come across, with a lot of chords that are hard to remember and even harder to improvise over.


But there is a way to make that easier, both to solo over and to remember. And the way I do this also shows why I lean so heavily on functional Harmony and just how powerful a concept that is. But I also want to talk a little bit about "peppertinos" and very hairy systems for this, which can get a bit strange but also are often very practical.

The first time I set out to really start learning a jazz standard, then I spent two months alone in a house learning "Stella By Starlight" and "There's No Greater Love." Just recording a simple chorus of the chords, practicing the melody, and improvising on them every day. I kept on going until I could get a simple solo to sort of make sense over them, and I could hear where I was and knew the chords by heart.

本当にジャズスタンダードを学び始めるとき、私は2ヶ月間、一人で「Stella By Starlight」と「There's No Greater Love」を学ぶための家にこもりました。単純なコードのコーラスを録音し、メロディを練習し、毎日それらを即興演奏しました。私は、単純なソロをそれなりに演奏できるようになり、どこにいるかを聴き分け、和音を暗記できるようになるまで続けました。

The problem is that I learned everything one chord at a time. I was not thinking in groups, of course, that follow each other or groups of chords that sound similar. Music is a language, so I'm going to use that comparison to help you see just how powerful this is. But first, you need to clean up the chords a bit. Everything's very dirty.


A problem that I get many questions about is how to think about extensions and whether you can use a C713 instead of a C79. And that's not really how you want to think about chords. A chord has a lot of options, and what notes you play or extensions that you add are more about what you want it to sound like and what is going on around you in the band and in the song. It's not thinking, "Now I want to play C713," because that's not really a musical thing. It's a simple that you can maybe turn into music, but you need to know how. And often, that actually means ignoring the extensions in the beginning.


You're probably learning songs from a lead sheet, like in a real book, and first, you really just want to get rid of the extensions because what's important is the type of the chord and the context it's in. So just focus on the basic seventh chord and forget about the nines and elevens. You want to understand that from the other chords around it and the melody, not a chord symbol. After all, a piece of music is not a row of letters in iReal. If you write out a chord progression, then really, it's just a long row of letters, and it's difficult to memorize and make sense of long rows of letters. But if you start grouping the letters into words, then you're attaching meaning to them, and that's a lot easier to remember. And this, of course, also works with jazz songs.


So if you can sum up a 32-bar song as a bunch of smaller progressions, then you have to remember a lot less. And if you're used to improvising over those smaller progressions as well, then soloing over the song is also going to be a lot simpler. But there are actually quite a few more advantages for this to work. Then you need to get used to thinking and recognizing the words or building blocks in the chord progressions.


Some of the common words or blocks that you certainly want to start recognizing are things like, of course, the basic Ⅱ-Ⅴ-Ⅰ as you have it here in "Perdido" and "Take the A Train."

一部のよく使われる単語や構成要素として、もちろん、ここで「Perdido」や「Take the A Train」にあるような基本的なⅡ-Ⅴ-Ⅰ進行があります。


Ⅰ-Ⅵ-Ⅱ-Ⅴ turnaround similar to Rhythm changes or Blue Moon.

リズムチェンジや「Blue Moon」に似たⅠ-Ⅵ-Ⅱ-Ⅴのターンアラウンド。


The Ⅴ of Ⅴ where you also want to notice that very often it's placed in a certain part of the form so at the end of the first half as it is here in there I'll never be another you.

ⅤのⅤという部分も注目してください。非常によく、形式の特定の部分に配置されていることに気付きます。ここでは、フォームの前半の終わりに配置されています。例えば、「There Will Never Be Another You」においても同様です。


Or at the end of the bridge as you see in Satin Doll the same can be said for the ⅡⅤ to Ⅳ it's also very often placed in the bridge.

また、ブリッジの最後に配置されることもあります。例えば、「Satin Doll」のような曲でも同様です。ⅣへのⅡ-Ⅴ進行も同様に、ブリッジによく配置されます。


Opposition so that the four chord is at the beginning of the second eight bars of the form what you see in the living are you.



Another very useful block is four four minor one progressions here it is in deliver you and you also have one in all the things you are.

もうひとつ非常に有用な進行は、Ⅳ-Ⅳm-Ⅰ進行です。"All the Things You Are"にも含まれています。


The next thing will make it even more clear why you want to learn this from songs and then we need to get into the Barry Harris and Pat Martino thing.


A problem when you look at a lead sheet for the first time or even just the chords in iReal is that it's hard to have any idea about how those chords sound. But if you are used to thinking in turnarounds, two fives, and five and five, and so on, then you're actually working towards being able to hear the harmony just from looking at the chart, and that's incredibly useful. It makes it a lot easier to play a song for the first time. It's similar to how you probably find it really easy to play a song if you're told that it's a blues, something that you're already very familiar with the sound of.


But for that to happen, the words or building blocks should not be only theoretical things. They need to be something that you really know the sound of, and that's the easiest to achieve by recognizing them in the songs that you already know well. At the same time, then you can probably also see how this will help you pick up songs faster by ear since you can start to rely on hearing groups of chords and not each chord one chord at a time. And there's a good chance that you're probably already doing this with things like turnarounds.


A danger with trying to learn building blocks is that you get stuck on the details, which is similar to getting stuck with the extensions that I talked about earlier. With stuff like this, it makes the most sense to focus on how chord progressions are similar more than how they're different. So, if it resembles a turnaround, then all of these progressions are essentially the same thing. But maybe for this song or this arrangement, one of them fits better than the others. But it's more important to also realize that it's a turnaround.


If you want to take this into the language analogy, then this would be synonyms, words with essentially the same meaning, give or take a nuance. You can expand this to other things as well, like the 4/4 minor one progressions, which are essentially just subdominant minus subdominant tonic. And here, a big part of why that's important to know is that these progressions sound similar and have the same important notes and voice leading. Which means that you can approach soloing over them in very similar ways.


And now we can start looking at the Barry Harris and Pat Martino methods. One thing that's often very practical when looking at chord progressions that you want to solo over is to reduce the amount of chords in there. This is where Pat Martino and Barry Harris kind of have opposite approaches. The reason that you can leave chords out is that a lot of chords are really just embellishments and can be ignored without the soul or losing the connection to the song. And it's easier to play strong melodies if you're not tied down by having to spell out a lot of changes and think about a lot of chords.


A very useful example of this is the A part of Rhythm changes where there are really a lot of chords, but you can reduce it to just one chord per bar. The reduced version of the chords will contain the basic movement of the song, and this will work great for solos. As I mentioned, both Pat Martino and Barry Harris have systems for this, and they're both very simple rules.


For a 2-5, Pat Martino says that everything is a two chord, so a two-five just becomes that two chord. Barry Harris goes the other way and throws away the two chord, so he says that a 2-5 is just a five chord. Both of these can be useful. I think it really depends on the song. I think the Barry Harris approach probably gives you a more natural chord progression when you've thrown away all the two chords, where Pat Martino becomes a little bit strange, giving you a bluesy feel. And if you have to think like this at the same time, for guitar, there's just something natural and something easier about thinking in minor. Maybe it's just because we're stuck with the minor pentatonic box one for eternity.


But to be fair, then applying Barry's rule to a song like "I Should Care" or "Voices Four" on six also can become a little bit strange. So maybe you want to be aware of both systems and flexible enough to use the one that works the best for you in whatever song you're playing. At least that's what I've taken away from that. In music, context is everything.

ただし、公平を期すために、バリーのルールを「I Should Care」や「Four on Six」といった曲に適用すると、少し奇妙になることもあります。したがって、おそらく両方のシステムを認識し、演奏している曲に最も適した方法を柔軟に使うことが望ましいでしょう。少なくとも私はそう理解しています。音楽では、文脈がすべてです。

One thing that this way of thinking really helps with is when you're making chord melody arrangements, simply because if you can understand the chord progression and know some of the other similar progressions that are available, then you can do fantastic things and make a chord melody arrangement your personal take on that song. Also, in terms of what chords you use. And if you want to learn more about making chord melody arrangements and making them more your own, then check out this video.



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