Transposition of the repertoire(レパートリーの転調)

Often a vocalist will ask to raise or lower a song’s key, typically by a half or whole step, so that the song is more comfortable to sing. Several factors can affect this change of key, including the maturation of the voice over time, experimentation with range expansion, and even the possibility of temporary illness or fatigue. The vocalist may also request a lower key in order to sing a dramatic high note at the end of the piece. Whichever the case, the accompanist must be prepared. A common, although demanding solution, is to practice standard repertoire in “foreign” keys such as E, A and B major (or C#, F# and G# minor), or, time permitting, in all twelve keys.


John di Martino feels that when working with vocalists one must have “a deep intimacy with the standard tunes. You have to really know the repertoire, be able to play it in any key.”87 As a warm-up exercise, di Martino will play the first chorus of a piece in the original key. In the next chorus he moves up a half step and switches to another style, and so on until all keys have been covered in various styles.88 When di Martino is required to transpose, his preferred method is to use Roman numerals rather than intervallic transposition, even when a song is new to him. In other words, rather than attempting to transpose each chord by a certain interval up or down, he will relate each chord or set of chords to a key center and transpose phrase by phrase. Using this method, transposition is quicker and more efficient.


I agree with di Martino that this approach is quite useful, however I think it depends on the key and the distance of transposition. If a singer requires moving a song’s key by whole or half step, I transpose intervallically. In most cases where the transposition is by fourth or fifth, I use the Roman numeral method. With some songs it is easier to perceive Roman numeral analysis right away, while with others the key centers are not as obvious.


Arranging for the Vocalist(ボーカリストのための編曲)

A distinct advantage of arranging music for the vocalist is having the added dimension of lyrics. Words can help dramatically shape and define the mood of each piece, as noted in chapter ten. Of course, arrangements do not have to be faithful to the lyrics. In fact, arrangers sometimes purposely avoid the literal meaning of lyrics. When arranging for the vocalist, Halberstadt will, in some cases, go against the grain by thwarting certain standards and conventional expectations. He notes that in many cases the composer chooses aspects of an arrangement for a tune such as tempo and groove with the lyrics in mind. “There’s a reason why Irving Berlin didn’t write ‘Let Yourself Go’ as a ballad,” yet he adds, “the lyrics can also suggest some interesting effects. You could choose a tempo for a tune which conflicts with the message of the lyrics.” For example, Tierney Sutton’s ironic dirge-like tempo on “Get Happy,” the first track from On The Other Side, greatly reverses expectations. The listener expects to hear an up-beat version that matches the mood of the lyrics. It is not until the end of the album when the listener’s expectations are satisfied with indeed an up-tempo, ‘happy,’ version of the song.

ボーカリストのために音楽を編曲することの明確な利点の一つは、歌詞の追加次元があることです。言葉は各曲のムードを劇的に形作り、定義するのに役立ちます(第10章で述べたように)。もちろん、編曲は歌詞に忠実でなければならないわけではありません。実際、編曲家は時に意図的に歌詞の文字通りの意味を避けることもあります。ボーカリストのために編曲をする際、ハルバースタットは場合によっては、ある基準や慣例に逆らって行くこともあります。彼は、作曲家が曲の編曲においてテンポやグルーブなどを歌詞を念頭に置いて選ぶことが多いと指摘しています。「アーヴィング・バーリンが『Let Yourself Go』をバラードとして書かなかった理由がある」としながらも、「歌詞は興味深い効果を示唆することもあります。歌詞のメッセージとは対立するようなテンポを曲に選ぶこともできます。」たとえば、ティアニー・サットンの「Get Happy」のアイロニックな葬送曲のようなテンポは、アルバム『On The Other Side』の最初のトラックで予想を大きく覆します。リスナーは、歌詞のムードに合ったアップビートなバージョンを聴くことを期待します。そしてアルバムの最後で、リスナーの期待に応える形で、確かにアップテンポで「ハッピー」なバージョンが演奏されます。

Tierney Sutton / On the Other Side - Get Happy(アイロニックな葬送曲のようなテンポ)

Tierney Sutton / On the Other Side - Get Happy(歌詞のムードに合ったアップビートなバージョン)

Accompanists can also enjoy the group collaboration process of arranging. The Tierney Sutton band prides itself on teamwork. After a song selection, group members contribute an idea or germ of an idea. Those ideas then grow into a communal arrangement.89 On Tierney Sutton’s version of “Skylark” on Desire, Jacobs notes that the band “used a very spiritual concept to compare the flight of a bird to spiritual elevation; I then used a very soft carpet sound that, to me, evokes wind in nature.” Often the initial idea may not come from Jacob; it might emerge from a bass line, a rhythm groove, or a conceptual idea, like with Skylark.


Tierney Sutton / Desire - Skylark

Hobgood and Elling also collaborate in various ways. In the case of “Beauty of All Things” on The Messenger, Hobgood conceived of the entire composition with Elling in mind.90 Kurt Elling credits Hobgood with helping create the “floaty” arrangement of “A Time For Love” on This Time It’s Love and the right mood for “The Best Things Happen” on the same album.91 Hobgood cites both Kenny Wheeler’s Music For Large and Small Ensembles with the vocalist Norma Winstone, and Vince Mendoza’s writing for Joni Mitchell on Both Sides Now and Travelogue as strong influences on his writing. Hobgood observes that Mendoza’s writing for Mitchell, especially on Both Sides Now, was particularly instructive when he arranged for horns and voice on Kurt Elling’s Flirting With Twilight. On the track “Easy Living,” an arrangement that Hobgood is particularly proud of, he recast the ballad in a 6/4 setting, feeling the song needed “movement” yet the simultaneous retention of its original “tenderness.” Studying the lyrics, Hobgood realized new implications in the words that state that someone is “crazy in love with someone else and is not afraid to show it.” He believes the song “was meant to sound ‘ennobling and honorable.’” Lastly, Hobgood adds, “The arranger’s art and the accompanist’s art are very closely related.”

ホブグッドとエリングはさまざまな方法で共同作業も行っています。『The Messenger』の「Beauty of All Things」の場合、ホブグッドはエリングを念頭に置いて作曲を行いました。カート・エリングは、ホブグッドが『This Time It's Love』の「A Time For Love」の「浮遊感のある」編曲を手伝い、「The Best Things Happen」の正しいムードを同じアルバムに作り出すのに貢献したと評価しています。ホブグッドは、ケニー・ウィーラーの『Music For Large and Small Ensembles』(ヴォーカリストのノーマ・ウィンストンと共作)や、ヴィンス・メンドーザがジョニ・ミッチェルの『Both Sides Now』と『Travelogue』のために書いた作品も、彼の作曲に強い影響を与えたと挙げています。ホブグッドは、特に『Both Sides Now』のジョニ・ミッチェルへのメンドーザのアレンジは、カート・エリングの『Flirting With Twilight』でホーンと声のために編曲を行う際に特に参考になったと述べています。彼が特に誇りに思っている「Easy Living」というトラックでは、バラードを6/4拍子の設定に再構築し、「運動性」と同時に元の「優しさ」を保持する必要があると感じました。歌詞を研究する中で、ホブグッドは、誰かが「誰かに恋していて、それを見せることを恐れない」という言葉に新たな意味を見出しました。彼はこの曲が「『高貴で名誉な』響きになるように意図されている」と考えています。最後に、ホブグッドは「編曲家の芸術と伴奏者の芸術は非常に密接に関連している」と付け加えています。

Kurt Elling / The Messenger - The Beauty Of All Things

Kurt Elling / Jazz and Blues - This Time It's Love

Kurt Elling / This Time It's Love - The Best Things Happen While You're Dancing

Kenny Wheeler / For P.A. - Part IV

Joni Mitchell / Clouds - Both Sides, Now

Joni Mitchell / Travelogue

Newton suggests that quality arrangements have a sense of progression because development and momentum are basic parts of musical language. Citing a recording of a Carpenters song as an example, Newton noticed the arrangement was layered; the piano and voice began for sixteen measures, then the bass entered, which created a “huge emotional shift.” After the drums entered sixteen measures later the mood shifted again. Newton also observed: “Organ scholars, in all that religious music, knew exactly when to press that low note to stimulate the crowd – everybody gets goosebumps.” He adds that there is a tension by starting up high, and by bringing in the low note there is a resolution, and “suddenly the whole thing makes sense.”


When creating arrangements for vocalists, di Martino often works through the tune at the piano by first singing it himself. Then, he conceives instrumental counterlines against the melody, mindful that they are not obtrusive against the melody. However, he discovered that melodic lines that may work on the piano may not be as effective for other instruments, due to their timbre, range and sound quality. Harmonically, di Martino may arrange a thirty two bar standard with a built-in surprise, such as a modulation at the last A section to “give it new wings.” di Martino also encourages accompanists to be thoroughly familiar with the Great American Songbook. He suggests, like Hobgood, that acquiring composers’ original songbooks is vital because the full harmonic picture is not present in fake books that contain chord symbols and melody alone.


Even more arrangement techniques are possible with a vocalist. The verse can be sung a cappella, making it stand out against the rest of the song, or it could even be included as part of the song’s form. I feel the verse works particularly well as an interlude with shorter songs such as “Street of Dreams.” The pianist may also ‘lay out’ at the bridge and let the bass line walk, then return in a later section. This provides an energetic and refreshing lift. If a song is sung through twice, modulating up a half-step the second time through the chorus is a very effective device, particularly in the out head. I have successfully used all of these techniques with vocalists I work with in Chicago.
Experimentation, discussion and rehearsal, when possible, are the key.

ボーカリストと共に、さらに多くの編曲テクニックが可能です。ヴァースはアカペラで歌うことができ、それによって他の部分と対比させることができます。また、ヴァースを曲の形式の一部として組み込むこともできます。私は「Street of Dreams」のような短い曲では、ヴァースが間奏として特に効果的だと感じます。また、ピアニストはブリッジ部分で休止し、ベースラインを歩かせてから後のセクションで再び参加することもできます。これによってエネルギッシュで新鮮な盛り上がりを生み出します。曲が2回歌われる場合、コーラスの2回目で半音上に転調するという手法は非常に効果的であり、特にアウトロ部分で効果的です。私はこれらのテクニックをシカゴで一緒に働くボーカリストと共に成功裏に使用してきました。



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