Avoiding harmonic conflicts with the vocal line(ヴォーカルラインとの和声の衝突を避ける)

It is especially important that the accompanist voices a chord properly during exposed sections, such as a rubato introduction, so as to avoid cross-relations or harmonic clashes with the melody. When the top note of a chord is a whole or half-step away from the melody, it creates a dissonant “rub.” The timbral mixture of the voice and piano at melodic odds can be displeasing. A classic example of this occurs when a vocalist sings a natural ninth or fifth of the chord and the accompanist emphasizes the flatted ninth or fifth. The resulting sound is a dissonant harmonic clash:


Example 9.1. Harmonic clashes with the melody (x’s indicate vocalist’s note).

In the introduction to “A Nightingale Sang in Berkeley Square,” John Colianni carefully avoids a harmonic clash with Mel Tormé. At 1:00, as Tormé sustains a D, the 13th of the chord on F13, Colianni plays an upward D arpeggio that complements the vocal note.64

「A Nightingale Sang in Berkeley Square」のイントロダクションにおいて、ジョン・コリアーニはメル・トーメとの調和衝突を避けるために注意を払っています。1:00に、トーメがF13のコードの13番目であるDを維持している間、コリアーニはボーカルの音符と調和する上方向のDのアルペジオを演奏します。

Mel Torme w/ John Colianni - "A Nightingale Sang In Berkeley Square", 1994

Halberstadt tries to be conscious of using appropriate voicings that do not conflict with the melody: “If the singer is holding a long note, I generally won’t add a note to my voicing that is a half-step underneath the melody.” He adds, “I’m unlikely to use the Kenny Barron voicing for Cm11 if the chord is functioning as a III in Ab major, especially if the singer has, for example, a melody with a passing Eb down to Db down to C. The D natural in my voicing will likely cause problems for the singer.”

ハルバースタットは、メロディと衝突しない適切な Voicing を使用することに注意を払おうとしています。「シンガーが長い音符を持っている場合、私は一般的に、私の Voicing にメロディの半音下の音符を追加しません。」彼は付け加えます、「シンガーが例えば、Eb を経由して Db に下降するメロディを持っている場合、特に C の Ab メジャーで機能するコードとしての III としての Cm11 に Kenny Barron Voicing を使用する可能性は低いです。私の Voicing の Dナチュラルは、シンガーに問題を引き起こす可能性が高いでしょう。」

If the pianist is working in tandem with other chordal instruments such as guitar while accompanying, it is also important to avoid harmonic conflicts. On early recordings with Stacey Kent, David Newton discussed and agreed upon chord changes with the guitarist. Newton also acknowledges that knowing the melody and having the melody on a lead sheet is helpful, but there is still “a massive amount of scope as to where it can be taken.”


Reacting to or using the melody as a guide in performance(演奏の中で、メロディに反応するかそれをガイドとして使用する)

It is expected that any chordal instrument that is accompanying a vocalist must know the melody of the song in addition to the harmony. “Fundamentally, a pianist who doesn’t know and can’t play the melody of a song will not effectively accompany someone else singing or playing the melody” stresses Halberstadt. Through my own experience, knowing only the harmony of the song will produce mediocre results. Not taking the melody into account inevitably leads to harmonic clashes.


Knowledge of the melody also enhances other aspects of performance. Eric Gunnison notes, “The melody is always available when you are soloing. In fact, it can unify the solo with the rest of the performance. Monk said you could play a better solo if you play the melody.” On Pure Ella, during his solos Ellis Larkins would often stay close to the melody or quote melodic fragments of it, as in the tracks “My One and Only” and “But Not For Me.”65 Many vocalists enjoy hearing a melody in an instrumental solo, especially towards the end of the solo to confirm their own entrance point at the top of the form.

曲のメロディを知っていることは、演奏の他の側面にも影響を与えます。エリック・ガンニソンは、「ソロ演奏をするときには常にメロディが利用できます。実際、それはソロ演奏を全体のパフォーマンスと一体化させることができます。モンクは、メロディを演奏すればより良いソロ演奏ができると言いました。」と述べています。『Pure Ella』では、エリス・ラーキンスがソロ演奏でしばしばメロディに近いフレーズを使用したり、『My One and Only』や『But Not For Me』のトラックでメロディの断片を引用することがありました。多くのボーカリストは、楽器のソロ演奏でメロディを聞くのを楽しんでいます。特にソロ演奏の終わりには、フォームの先頭で自分の入り口を確認するためにメロディが欲しいと思うことがあります。

Ella Fitzgerald / Pure Ella

Ella Fitzgerald / Ella Sings Gershwin - My One and Only

Ella Fitzgerald / Ella Sings Gershwin - But Not For Me

In some contexts, an accompanist will respond to the particular style of the vocalist’s melody. If, for instance, the vocalist is singing an angular or more fourth- interval oriented melody, Hobgood notes he responds by comping with voicings that reflect that shape with non-tertian voicings that may have small dissonances to match the sound. On “My Love, Effendi” on This Time It’s Love, at 0:28 Hobgood immediately matches the sound of Elling’s angular improvisations with appropriate fourth-oriented voicings.

特定の文脈では、伴奏者はボーカリストのメロディの特定のスタイルに応じて反応することがあります。例えば、ボーカリストが角ばったもしくは第4音程に重点を置いたメロディを歌っている場合、ホブグッドはそれに応じて、その形状を反映したノンテルティアンなヴォイシングや、小さな不協和音を持つヴォイシングでコンプを行うことを述べています。例えば、『This Time It's Love』の「My Love, Effendi」では、0:28において、ホブグッドはエリングの角ばった即興演奏の音に適切な第4音程のヴォイシングを即座に合わせています。

Kurt Elling / This Time It's Love - My Love, Effendi

Use of the melody in chordal voicings(コードの声部におけるメロディの利用方法について)

Choosing to include the melody in a chord voicing, particularly as the top note of the chord, or to actually play the melody is a contextual choice. While in classical lieder the melody is often doubled for emphasis, as in the lieder of Schumann, in jazz playing the melody simultaneously with a vocalist is generally avoided. Jimmy Rowles lamented that some singers “want you to play the melody so they know where they’re supposed to be.”66 If a less-experienced singer is having difficulty with a certain passage, or if there is an odd key change or a difficult intervallic leap, di Martino will reinforce the melody in his voicings.67 He suggests “you should always voice your chords thinking of your top line in a way that the melody can lay very easily and confidently over it.”


Carmen McRae instructed Eric Gunnison not to stress the melody in his comping.


Gunnison usually avoids emphasizing the melody in the voicing unless the singer requests it. Randy Halberstadt believes that voicing chords with the melody as the top note is an “old school” technique, but nevertheless a useful tool for beginning or less experienced vocalists to help them find their pitches. Hobgood also avoids this practice unless there is a good musical reason for it.


Newton feels it is “an abomination” to play the melody along with the vocalist unless it is used as part of an arrangement. Sometimes it is unavoidable to play the melody as the top note of a chord voicing, but this occasional reinforcement is not necessarily a clash. He comments, “there’s an art to staying away from the tune, and it is quite difficult to do.” It took him a long time to learn to avoid the tune and start coming up with what Nelson Riddle called “your own private melodies” that would run underneath the original. “The more familiar you are with the original melody, the more freedom you have to think spontaneously of another quality melody that would sit underneath it. Subconsciously, you may even use phrases that appear in the song,” he adds. From 0:34 to 0:52 in “What the World Needs Now” on The Boy Next Door, Newton complements the main vocal line by providing a subtle countermelody as the top note in his chord voicings.

ニュートンは、編曲の一部としてでない限り、ボーカリストと一緒に曲のメロディを演奏することは「忌まわしい」と考えています。時には、コードのヴォイシングのトップノートとしてメロディを強調することが避けられないことがありますが、この時のメロディの強調は必ずしも衝突とは限りません。彼は、「曲から遠ざかる技術があり、それは非常に難しいことです」とコメントしています。彼は、ネルソン・リドルが「あなた自身のプライベートなメロディ」を作り出すと呼んでいたものを考え出し、オリジナルの下に走る別の品質のメロディを即興で思いつく自由が増えるほど、オリジナルのメロディに慣れ親しんでいくことが大切だと述べています。彼はさらに、「無意識のうちに、曲に登場するフレーズを使うかもしれません」と付け加えます。ニュートンは、The Boy Next Doorの"What the World Needs Now"の0:34から0:52まで、彼のコードヴォイシングのトップノートに微妙なカウンターメロディを提供することで、主要なボーカルラインを補完しています。

Stacey Kent / The Boy Next Door - What The World Needs Now Is Love

Finally, Jon Dryden advises that, since the vocalist has control of the melody, the accompanist must remain sensitive to whether his part belongs in the foreground or background, or somewhere in between.68 Thus, the potential for creativity and freedom of phrasing increases if the melody is left entirely to the vocalist. This is not always the case in other musical styles like the Broadway musical since melodic phrasing is often worked out ahead of time. In the jazz setting, inevitably rhythmic conflicts will result if accompanists attempt to duplicate the melodic line. Doing so is an act of instrument role duplication, similar to a pianist walking bass lines along with the bassist.




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